Aura Components is not based on MVC framework rather it's based on Component-based framework, where a specific business requirement will be broken down into multiple small pieces. Each and every piece is completely independent and reusable.
When we create an Aura Component unlike Visualforce Pages eight (8) entities will be created.
These are the entities that get created!
- Component - This is going to hold the markup
- Helper - This is where we will have all the business logic and utility functions. We need to follow this approach because of the reason specified here
- Style - Here we will write the CSS code with respect to the Component
- Documentation - This generates the documentation of the custom Aura Component
- Render - We can override custom logic at different phases of the Life Cycle of an Aura Component.
- Design - We can expose the Aura Attributes using a Design file such that Administrators can assign values to the Attributes from Lightning App Builder.
- SVG - In case the business is interested in using custom SVG icons then this is the place where we put the SVG icons.
Hope this helps!